© C. Degueurce - private collection

Title page of a handwritten course by a veterinary student in the 18th century, circa 1780

Initially, veterinary education was rather rough. A student was deemed competent once he or she knew the opuscules by heart. Many of them were published by Bourgelat under the title The Elements of the Veterinary Art, which was reissued numerous times after his death in 1779.