© C. Degueurce - Musée Fragonard de l’École nationale vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort

Paper mache horse mannequin by Louis Auzoux (1846)

In 1822, Louis Auzoux developed a method inspired by Jean-François Ameline, a professor at the Faculty of Caen, which enabled him to create paper mache models that could be dismantled. He first created various human models before applying the method to the animal world and then to botany. In 1844, he created a horse model to enable dissecting the animal without requiring a corpse. This is the so-called "incomplete", simplified model for the training of young conscripts in cavalry and artillery regiments.